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Anesthesiology

The department’s administrative office is located at Farber 252C, UB South Campus. The instructional program utilizes the facilities of the Buffalo General Medical Center, Gates Vascular Institute, Women and Children’s Hospital of Buffalo, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and the Veterans Administration Medical Center.

Second Year
The staff assists the Department of Pharmacology in teaching the principles of anesthesia and the pharmacology of anesthetic drugs. Integrated with this didactic program, the Anesthesiology Department provides pertinent clinical demonstrations at the affiliated hospitals. Faculty members also lecture as part of the didactic programs in microbiology and physiology.

Also available are ten-week preceptorships in research in the various Anesthesiology Research Labs. These preceptorships are offered during the summer following the second year of medical school.

Third Year
A two-week anesthesiology selective is provided for third or fourth year students within the context of the required Surgery 800 (Surgical Specialties) rotation. This experience is offered at Roswell Park Cancer Institute and Buffalo General Medical Center. The student receives clinical exposure with members of the anesthesiology staff in the operating rooms, recovery rooms, and ICU’s. Practical instruction, preoperative evaluation, preparation of patients for anesthesia, methods of anesthesia, and postoperative care are considered within this integrated rotation.

Also available is a four-week Anesthesiology elective for third year students. This is primarily limited to the second half of the Junior year and is not an option for students visiting from other universities.

The objectives of this four-week rotation are to provide an opportunity for students to have direct patient management in the several areas touched by clinical anesthesiology and to point out the clinical applications of physiology and pharmacology as they pertain to anesthesiology.

Within this four-week elective, students will be responsible for the preoperative evaluation of patients (including H&P); and the ordering of preoperative medication. They are then allowed to actively participate in the administration of anesthesia in the operating room and are responsible for the postoperative care of the patient. The students will be under the direct supervision of an attending anesthesiologist in a ratio of no more than two students per faculty member.

Fourth Year
The objectives are the same as the four-week anesthesiology elective as described above for Junior students. This rotation is open to fourth year students for both semesters and students visiting from other universities via prior arrangements with the administrative office housed at Farber 252C, UB South Campus.

Research
Third and fourth year students may opt to take an elective in anesthesia research. They must make individual arrangements with the administrative office to participate in the research programs.

Prime interests of the department are related to the effects of anesthetic agents on respiratory and circulatory mechanisms. Studies include: acid-base balance and circulation of anesthetized man during passive hyperventilation, aspiration pneumonitis, cerebral blood flow, ventilation during and post anesthesia, uptake and distribution of inert gases and inhalation anesthetics, clinical investigation of various anesthetic agents and adjuvants, and analysis of NMDA receptors.

Anesthesia Elective at Another University
Senior medical students may elect to do a four-week anesthesia elective at another university by arrangements with the chair’s office at that institution.

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Dermatology

The Department of Dermatology participates in patient care at Buffalo General Medical Center, Veterans Administration Medical Center. In addition to outpatient clinics, the department provides inpatient care, inpatient consultations, dermatopathology services, dermatologic surgery, and clinical and basic science research. Educational programs are available for undergraduate medical students, primary care residents, and continuing education for dermatologists in the community. The Buffalo Rochester Dermatologic Society meets quarterly during the academic year.

Fourth-year elective courses for undergraduate medical students are integrated into the other educational activities of the department. Students will be exposed to common skin disorders such as acne and psoriasis as well as less well known disorders such as mycosis fungoides and the bullous dermatoses. The overall goal of the fourth-year electives is to understand the contribution of the field of dermatology to complete patient care.

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Family Medicine

The Department of Family Medicine encompasses a large and diverse group of individuals in a variety of settings who share the common goal of providing high quality, comprehensive health care to patients and their families. The department presently includes 21 full-time faculty, 85 volunteer faculty and 47 residents. In addition to utilizing busy academic ambulatory practices and inpatient services at three teaching hospitals (Buffalo General, Erie County Medical Center, and Millard Fillmore Suburban), our teaching program relies heavily upon a network of dedicated community-based family physician teachers.

Along with our central focus of providing family-centered primary care to individuals of all ages, a variety of special interests are reflected in the clinical activity, research, and educational programs of the department. These include Prevention and Wellness, Maternal and Child Health, Geriatrics, Rural Health Care, Global Health, and Urban Family Medicine (with an emphasis on the health care needs of traditionally underserved populations).

Medical student education is given the highest priority in the Department of Family Medicine, with course offerings available in all four years of the curriculum. Clinical training is based on individualized instruction and close one-to-one relationships between attending physicians and students. Classroom work relies primarily on small group discussions, active student participation, problem-based learning, and self-directed study. Emphasis is placed on communication and interviewing skills, the doctor-patient relationship, the bio-psycho-social-spiritual approach to patient care in the context of family and community, continuity and comprehensiveness of care, health promotion and disease prevention, clinical problem solving and rational therapeutics, as well as the diagnosis and management of common illnesses

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Integrated Medical Curriculum

The Integrated Medical School Curriculum (IMC) in the first and second years integrates the basic sciences with clinical case discussions and emphasizes self-directed and small group case-based learning as well as interpersonal and communication skills. The case studies emphasize common medical conditions which illustrate important scientific principles.

Gross Human Anatomy (ANA-500), given in the first semester, and the four semester Clinical Practice of Medicine sequence (IDM-520/521 and IDM-620/621) are taught in a more traditional format.

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Interdepartmental Studies

The following courses are offered under the joint auspices of several of the departments of the School of Medicine. These courses provide the basic medical science and the clinical science faculties with an opportunity for a more collaborative approach to medical education. It is anticipated that this "team-teaching approach" in each course will add depth and breadth to the students' curriculum.

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Medical Scientist Training Program

The first two years of training mirrors the syllabus of the medical student. Students are also required to attend a research seminar program to augment their education and reinforce their basic scientific knowledge. During the summer, between the first and second year, students are required to obtain research experience in two to three laboratories in order to acquaint themselves with different programs and departments related to their research interests. This is an important and indispensable exercise for MSTP students; however, our goal is for the student to make a commitment to a Department or a thesis advisor at the beginning of the second year.

After the completion of the second year, students will focus on the Ph.D. department of their choice. Students must qualify in the Ph.D. Department of their choice and undergo an admission procedure as that of any other student applying to that program.

The last year and a half of the MSTP are designed to provide students with the required medical rotations to broaden and strengthen their basic knowledge and skills in clinical medicine. During this period of time, students are also required to attend the MSTP Seminars. The required advanced clinical courses include Advanced Medicine, Surgical Specialties and Neurology. Once all the requirements have been met, students can adjust the remaining time in the program to conform to their individual needs. All elective courses must be approved by the OME.

MSTP students are expected to remain in good standing both as graduate students and medical students. Performance in the first two years will be evaluated based on Graduate School standards. Students are required a grade of High Satisfactory or better in all Medical School courses.

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Medicine

The Department of Medicine brings together faculty members with diverse backgrounds and experiences who share a concern for the teaching and practice of clinical medicine. The fundamental goal of Internal Medicine courses is to provide students with a comprehensive core of the clinical medicine knowledge necessary to become a competent physician. The faculty strive to motivate students and provide them with experience adequate to define and redefine their interests, whether these direct the student to practice clinical medicine or to pursue other disciplines.

The department presently includes 160 full-time and 360 part-time faculty members and 160 house staff, all of whom are utilized as instructors to give the student a broad range of learning opportunities. The department incorporates the medical services of the three major affiliated institutions: the Buffalo General Medical Center, Erie County Medical Center, and Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and employs the resources of Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Sisters of Charity Hospital, Mercy Hospital of Buffalo, and Millard Fillmore Hospital.

New programs, utilizing other institutions, have been developed to further increase the range of education offered to students by the department. For example, Consultation Medicine, which emphasizes the areas of adolescent and maternal medicine, is offered through the Buffalo Children's Hospital. Several programs are also in place which focus on the teaching of patient care in various ambulatory clinics and rural practices.

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Microbiology & Immunology

The Department of Microbiology and Immunology offers instruction in microbiology and immunology to undergraduate students in nursing, pharmacy, and medical technology, as well as to dental and medical students. In addition, there is an extensive program for the training of graduate students in microbiology and immunology, leading to the M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. Several medical students have elected to take the combined MD-PhD program, enrolling for the Ph.D. degree in the department's program. A number of individuals with doctoral degrees come to the department each year from all over the world for postdoctoral training in microbiology.

The department conducts research in all major areas. Research laboratories are designed and equipped for studies in microbial pathogenesis, molecular biology, parasitology, virology, and immunology, and house faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, graduate students, and staff involved in these investigations.

The department offers an extensive program of formal and informal courses through the Division of Graduate and Professional Education. Medical students are welcome in these courses. Consult the Graduate School Bulletin for a complete listing, and description of graduate courses. A description of elective courses in microbiology for medical students appears below.

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Neurology

The Department of Neurology provides opportunities for the student to acquire basic clinical skill in the analysis and management of neurologic problems and to become familiar with common diseases of the nervous and muscular systems. The work represents an extension into the clinical area of the principles learned in other scientific disciplines during the first and second year.

Fourth-year courses provide the opportunities for repeated practical experience in neurologic problem solving and are available by working with patients on the wards and in the outpatient department under the supervision of experienced neurologists, and by attending conferences dealing with current neurologic problems. Instruction is given at the Buffalo Children's Hospital, the Buffalo General Medical Center, the Erie County Medical Center, the Veterans Administration Medical Center, and the Millard Fillmore Hospital.

NOTE: Contact departmental office for site location before registering.

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Neurosurgery

The aim of the Department of Neurosurgery is to provide state-of-the-art care to patients with neurosurgical disorders in an academic and teaching environment. All branches of modern neurosurgery, including vascular surgery and pediatric neurosurgery, are practiced in the University-affiliated hospitals. The teaching of undergraduate students emphasizes the recognition of the most common injuries and illnesses of the central nervous system with an elaboration of the appropriate diagnostic workup and the subsequent surgical procedures. The postgraduate education consists of a fully approved seven year neurosurgical residency. Teaching is carried out in each of the affiliated hospitals (Buffalo General Medical Center, Children's Hospital, Millard Fillmore Suburban Hospital, Erie County Medical Center, Roswell Park Cancer Institute).

There are a number of active research laboratories in the Department, including endovascular, tumor biology, and movement disorders. Opportunities for clinical research exist as well.

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Nuclear Medicine

Nuclear medicine is the clinical discipline concerned with the medical uses of radioactive materials. This includes both functional and anatomical imaging of organs and tissues for diagnostic purposes, therapeutic administration of isotopes, and in vitro tests based on competitive binding of radiolabeled compounds. The main activity of nuclear medicine is in vivo imaging. Nuclear medicine utilizes knowledge of physiology in order to image organ function and thereby derive diagnostic information.

In addition to the teaching program at all levels in the Medical School, the department has an active research program which includes development of new instrumentation and radiopharmaceuticals aimed at improving the extending the usefulness of clinical radioisotope procedures. Students are encouraged to contact Department of Nuclear Medicine members concerning the courses listed below or to make less formal arrangements to pursue their interests in nuclear medicine.

The Department of Nuclear Medicine participates in patient care at Mercy Hospital of Buffalo, The Buffalo General Medical Center, VA Medical Center, and Roswell Park Cancer Institute and encompasses a diverse group of individuals in a variety of settings who share the common goal of providing high quality health care to patients.

The primary mission of the Department of Nuclear Medicine is to teach and train students at all levels of education, and to provide the services required to give the best of nuclear imaging techniques to the public in our immediate environment and beyond and to advance the boundaries of knowledge through our research, our scholarship, and creative activity.

In addition to outpatient clinics, the Department of Nuclear Medicine provides inpatient care, inpatient consultations, nuclear medicine imaging services, and clinical research. Educational programs are available for undergraduate medical students, medical and specialty residents, and continuing education for nuclear physicians and imaging practitioners in the community.

Students taking the Nuclear Medicine clinical rotation in Buffalo will work in one of the affiliated nuclear medicine departments under the guidance of one of the nuclear medicine physicians. The student will participate in patient diagnosis and the intellectual challenge presented in assisting in formulating patient diagnoses and treatment wherever indicated. The clinical variety offered and the freedom to conduct research and to make original clinical observations are definite pluses in this specialty.

Fourth Year Elective courses for medical students are integrated into the other educational activities of the Department. The Fourth Year Elective in Nuclear Medicine is one month of training at one of the four hospitals in the integrated residency program. During the Nuclear Medicine Elective, the student is provided practical experience in the clinical setting in the performance and interpretation of common nuclear medicine procedures. The student develops hands-on experience in history taking, physical examination and the evaluation of the request received from the referring physicians, the importance of the application of the nuclear imaging procedure requested, and evaluation of comparative imaging data as well as laboratory data and their importance in the interpretation of nuclear imaging. The student participates in the total management of the patient under the supervision and guidance of a full time faculty member in Nuclear Medicine. In addition, students participate in departmental programs for the residents and the community. The overall goal of the Elective is to understand the contribution of the field of nuclear medicine to complete patient care.

Nuclear Medicine is the clinical discipline concerned with all medical uses of radioactive materials (with the exception of sealed radiotherapy sources). This includes static and dynamic imaging of organs and tissues for diagnostic purposes, therapeutic administration of isotopes, and in vitro tests based on competitive binding of radiolabeled compounds. Nuclear Medicine combines medicine and basic biological sciences which originally had their roots in the fields of radiology, internal medicine, and pathology. Nuclear Medicine is primarily a clinical diagnostic discipline, it uses physical chemical principles and requires a background in such areas as physiology, biochemistry, mathematics, physics, chemistry, computer sciences, and statistics.

The discipline of Nuclear Medicine uses highly advanced technology in order to perform functional (physiological), rather than anatomical (structural), imaging for patient management. Technological innovations are constantly occurring and rapidly developing in this field.

The field of Nuclear Medicine is an interdisciplinary approach since it interacts with multiple medical specialists. Nuclear physicians are usually University or hospital based, or both.

For more information concerning career and educational opportunities in Nuclear Medicine, contact Dr. Robert S. Miletich, Department of Nuclear Medicine, 105 Parker Hall (South Campus), 3435 Main Street, Buffalo, NY 14214-3007. Tel: (716) 838-5889.

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Obstetrics & Gynecology

The Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology is concerned with women's health, particularly as it may be affected by childbearing. The program involves clerkships in the Buffalo General, Erie County Medical Center, Children's, Millard Fillmore, Sisters of Charity, and Mercy Hospitals. The gynecologic services of the Roswell Park Cancer Institute are also included.

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Ophthalmology

The aims of the Department of Ophthalmology are teaching, research, and patient care. Instruction in clinical ophthalmology, ophthalmic surgery, basic and clinical research is available to medical students, resident physicians, and practicing ophthalmologists.

Chair, Department of Ophthalmology: James D. Reynolds, MD, Professor
Director of MS1 & MS2 Medical Education: James J. Reidy, MD, FACS, Professor
Director of MS3 & MS4 Medical Education: Sandra Sieminski, MD, Assistant Professor
Program Director: Hoon Jung, MD, Assistant Professor
Department Administrator: Ms. Elaine Taylor

Clinical sites: Children’s Hospital, Buffalo VA Hospital, Ross Eye Institute
Departmental Web Site: http://smbs.buffalo.edu/ophthalmology

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Orthopaedics

The Department of Orthopaedics administrative offices are based at the Erie County Medical Center. The clinical instructional programs utilize facilities and faculty located at the Buffalo General Hospital, Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Erie County Medical Center, and the University Orthopaedic clinical offices located on Harlem Road in Amherst. The Orthopaedic Research Laboratory is located in Farber Hall of the UB South Campus. It is our goal to provide an educational environment that instills the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to care for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. Students of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery will become knowledgeable regarding the clinical manifestations, anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the common musculoskeletal conditions. Students will be instructed in the musculoskeletal history and physical examination, be able to identify disease, formulate a diagnosis, and initiate a treatment plan. We will foster an appreciation of the complex effect that musculoskeletal disease can have on the overall well-being of patients. The medical student will function as an integral part of the care of patients on our service. They will receive direct supervision by the resident staff as well as the attending surgeons. The orthopaedic service is busy which requires students to be active participants in their own educational experience. Dedication to self-study and reading outside of regular work hours is required to gain the knowledge required to successfully meet the goals of the rotation.

Educational Mission Statement:
It has been estimated that approximately 30 percent of all patients seeking a physician do so because of a complaint related to the musculoskeletal system. With an ever increasing activity level and an aging American population, the prevalence of musculoskeletal conditions will continue to increase over time. There is a growing concern that US medical school trained physicians are ill-equipped to properly diagnose and manage the more than 100 million patients affected by musculoskeletal problems in each year. It is our goal to provide an educational environment that instills the appropriate knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary to care for patients with musculoskeletal conditions. These goals conform with the general educational objectives and competencies of the mission statement of the UB School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. Students of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery will become knowledgeable regarding the clinical manifestations, anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the common musculoskeletal conditions. Students will be instructed in the musculoskeletal history and physical examination, be able to identify disease, formulate a diagnosis, and initiate a treatment plan. We will foster an appreciation of the complex effect that musculoskeletal disease can have on the overall well-being of patients.

The training of students is a complex interaction of didactic education, clinical responsibilities, and research. While our primary focus is the care of the patient, educating the next generation of doctors and surgeons is a responsibility that we accept seriously. The future of our profession rests on our ability to pass on the knowledge we have gained and to foster new thinking among our future colleagues. Although the practice of medicine is associated with service work that is not deemed truly educational, it is an essential part of taking care of our patients. It is our expectation that the care of patients will not interfere with the learning of our students and that the education of students will not compromise the quality of the care we provide to our patients.

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Otolaryngology

The Department of Otolaryngology offers courses tailored to meet undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing education for the primary care physician and practicing otolaryngologist, in comprehensive patient care and in recognizing emergency situations, as well as in understanding the diagnosis and management of the otolaryngologic diseases and trauma, neoplasia, congenital disorders of the head and neck.

The experiences in the outpatient department will provide opportunities for developing skills of information gathering and intensive, detailed regional topographic physical examination, analysis of problems, and satisfactory patient-doctor relationship. The clinical facilities are maintained in each of the following hospitals: Millard Fillmore Gates Circle Hospital, Veterans WNY Healthcare System, Buffalo General Medical Center, Erie County Medical Center and Women and Children’s Hospital. In addition, the Department of Otolaryngology conducts monthly teaching conferences on all aspects of otolaryngology and head and neck oncology.

Preparation of a paper suitable for publication or presentation of a didactic lecture at an institution is required for granting of honors. Time is allocated in this specialty for third-year students.

NOTE: Contact the department course coordinator, Beverly Hurley (716) 362-9585, for site location before registering.

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Pathology & Anatomical Sciences

The Department of Pathology and Anatomical Sciences is responsible for introducing the student to the structural and functional alterations in disease and the mechanisms whereby such alterations are produced. The subject represents both and an applied science that touches almost every other area of medical knowledge and hospital practice.

The dual aspect of pathology is emphasized in the teaching program. Initially, the fundamental principles of disease, such as inflammation and repair, metabolic and hemodynamic disturbances, and neoplasia are presented parallel to actual base studies based on current autopsies and surgical material. From the beginning, an attempt is made to correlate basic principles, morbid anatomy, and clinical syndromes. Later in the course, specific diseases are studied in detail. The characteristic changes produced by disease, in particular organ systems and their relationship to clinical manifestations, are explored.

Laboratory work involves the study of gross and microscopic specimens and may be supplemented by student attendance at autopsies, as well as by student participation in informal seminars.

The department is also involved in the organization and teaching of several subjects in collaboration with other departments which present to the student an integrated view of normal and abnormal function of selected organ systems.

The department offers a program leading to the PhD in Experimental Pathology which may be adapted to the needs of students who wish to obtain a combined MD-PhD as preparation for a career in academic medicine. Such programs are planned on an individual basis.

Members of the staff are engaged in research in immunochemistry, immunopathology, renal pathophysiology, experimental renal disease, experimental endocrinology and hypertension, genitourinary pathology, muscle pathology, perinatal and adult neuropathology, reticuloendothelial function, biology and neoplasms.

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Pediatrics

The Department of Pediatrics provides educational experiences at the Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Mercy Hospital, and affiliated clinics and offices. The departmental faculty represent a broad range of medical expertise with a strong focus in primary care as well as specialists in all major pediatric subspecialty areas. The Department of Pediatrics has a tradition of excellence in clinical teaching and has maintained a commitment to the education of all medical students toward the understanding of major medical and social issues in child health. Students who participate in educational experiences with the Department of Pediatrics will be provided opportunities to study in both inpatient and ambulatory clinical settings. All educational experiences will be closely supervised by full-time faculty members. Students will be provided educational goals and timely feedback on their progress.

At the Children's Hospital, inpatient teaching experiences will include the evaluation of children with a wide range of serious medical problems. Students will be expected to demonstrate proficiency in the performance of appropriate historical and physical examination skills for children of all ages from infancy through adolescence. Students will participate actively in ward teaching rounds and learn not only the pathophysiology of pediatric disease, but also the clinical art of caring for children with medical illnesses. Clinical teaching experiences will include subspecialty services in adolescent medicine, allergy/immunology/rheumatology, ambulatory pediatrics, cardiology, endocrinology, emergency medicine, critical care, gastroenterology/nutrition, hematology/oncology, medical genetics, infectious disease, neonatology, nephrology, pulmonary disease, and developmental and rehabilitative pediatrics. During pediatric electives and clerkships, students are expected to participate in regularly scheduled departmental and divisional seminars. All departmental educational programs are open to any interested student.

Educational and clinical experiences are also available at the Mercy Hospital, which include studying general pediatrics in the ambulatory setting. Emphasis is placed on continuity of clinical care, growth and development, as well as common pediatric diseases.

Research experiences during the fourth year of medical studies are available for both bench research and patient-related studies. These research opportunities allow students to work directly with senior faculty and to gain insight into the process of conducting biomedical research, analyzing data, and understanding ethical issues related to biomedical research.

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Pharmacology & Toxicology

The Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology in the School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences (SMBS) aims to enrich the lives of our students through providing an excellent educational experience in Pharmacology: the science of the mechanism of action of drugs and other biologically active agents on living cells or organisms; and Toxicology: the study of the adverse effects of chemical, physical or biological agents on living organisms and the ecosystem.

The department offers an extensive program of formal and informal courses through the Division of Graduate and Professional Education to provide students with a broad training in basic areas of pharmacology as well as a degree of expertise in a selected research area. The department has four major research strengths: Neuropharmacology, Molecular Signaling and Signal Transduction, Neuroscience, and Toxicology. Consult the Graduate School Bulletin for a complete listing and description of graduate courses. A description of the elective courses in pharmacology and toxicology for medical students appears below.

Research Opportunities
Specific areas of research interest within the department include drug-receptor interactions, signal transduction mechanisms, discovery and synthesis of receptor-selective melatonin ligands for the treatment of circadian sleep disorders, depression, and cancer; behavioral pharmacology of psychoactive drugs; signaling mechanism of cardiac ischemia/reperfusion stress; signaling mechanisms in the induction of glial progenitors and role of in vivo models of central nervous system demyelination/remyelination; biomarkers of exposure to environmental chemicals; toxicology of halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons and organophosphate pesticides; design, synthesis and evaluation of inducers, substrates and inhibitors of drug metabolizing enzymes.

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Physiology & Biophysics

Biophysical sciences are a group of sub-disciplines in the biological sciences which apply the principles of physics, physical chemistry, and mathematics to the study of biological systems. Biophysical sciences encompass experimental biophysics, theoretical biophysics, and clinical biophysics.

Experimental biophysics is best known for its contributions to structural molecular biology (through X-ray and neutron diffraction, nuclear magnetic resonance, and other spectroscopic techniques), to the understanding of subcellular structure and subcellular material transport processes-biological membranes in particular (e.g., through electron microscopy and isotopic tracer methodology), and to the elucidation of the nature of biological sensors (e.g., visual or auditory receptors) and of electrochemical information transfer.

Theoretical biophysics includes a diversity of areas which provide a theoretical background to experimental biophysics. These range from thermodynamics (which are characteristic of living systems), stochastic kinetics (pertinent to detailed enzyme kinetics), modeling of biological systems (e.g., compartmental analysis and regulation and control theory of endocrine systems, communication and network theories of the nerve system), to quantum biochemistry and the theory of evolution of the genetic code.

Clinical biophysics comprises the physicochemical background for the development of different physical procedures and devices used for clinical diagnosis (e.g., X-ray and ultrasonic imaging, thermography, magnetic resonance imaging, electrocardiography, blood flow-rate measurement, or isotopic tracer methodologies). It also covers the background for physical techniques used in therapy (e.g., radiation therapy, laser surgery, extracorporeal electrical stimulation, controlled drug release devices) and quantitative analytical approaches to clinical situations (e.g., cost/benefit and decision analysis in clinical diagnosis). Clinical biophysics is also involved in the application of computers and miniprocessors in clinical procedures to the handling and interpretation of clinical analytical information, to the direct diagnosis of certain disorders, and to real time therapeutic feedback control systems.

The Department conducts active research in most of the areas cited and offers appropriate specialized courses in practically all of them. Graduate programs leading to either an MS or PhD degree in Biophysical Sciences or combined MD-PhD. degrees are offered. They are described in the Graduate School Bulletin.

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Psychiatry

The Department of Psychiatry teaches courses in behavioral science and psychiatry during three years of medical school. The curriculum consists of participation in Neuroscience and Behavior, The Psychiatry Clerkship and electives during the clinical years.

During Neuroscience and Behavior major psychiatric illnesses are taught with an emphasis on their etiologic and clinical presentations.

In the third year, the psychiatric clerkship enables students to expand and integrate psychiatric knowledge within a clinical setting. The clerk gains skills in psychiatric assessment, interviewing, comprehensive treatment planning, psychotherapy, and use of psychotropic drugs. During the clerkship, students gain experience treating patients with psychiatric difficulties in in-patient and out- patient settings.

Electives are offered in a wide variety of subjects, and provide students with intensive experience in selected areas of psychiatry. Fourth year electives enable students to select clinical and research experiences tailored to their particular interests.

The Department of Psychiatry draws upon the clinical facilities of many area hospitals and the expertise of its full-time and volunteer faculty to offer students a breadth of learning experiences.

NOTE: Contact departmental office for site location before registering.

** All electives are reserved for senior medical students only. A third year medical student may take an elective with completion of PTY700 and Departmental Permission. Electives for third year students are added only after registration is completed. Electives available to third years under these conditions are: PTY 810, PTY 802, PTY 950.

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Radiology

The curriculum in radiology is wholly elective throughout the third and fourth years. Despite this, increasing numbers of students are enrolled in the various course offerings. It is hoped that the quality of the courses will encourage students to continue to elect some time in radiology.

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Surgery

The Department of Surgery aims to prepare all students to recognize and manage minor surgical problems, evaluate surgical emergency situations, and understand the presentation and evaluation of the common surgical problems. The experience in the wards, clinics, and operating rooms is designed to allow the learner to master some of the basic clinical skills found in surgery.

The teaching program is carried out in seven hospitals. All surgical services are affiliated with the School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences. On the clinical services the learner follows individual cases and works with the resident and attending staff. In the senior internships, the learner gains more clinical focus and acumen by engaging in an intensive clinical experience. The learner is assigned responsibility commensurate with his or her knowledge and experience.

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Urology

The Department of Urology conducts a comprehensive program in undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate medical education. These academic endeavors are directed towards clinical and research activities, emphasizing correlates between basic sciences and clinical problems. Clinical facilities of the following hospitals are utilized for these activities: Buffalo General Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Erie County Medical Center, Millard Fillmore Hospital, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, and the Veterans Affairs Medical Center.

The goals of a rotation through Urology are to familiarize students with the principles of diagnosis and management of common Urologic disorders. Students are integrated as fully participating members of the Urology team at the individual institution to which they are assigned. Students, therefore, participate in clinical rounds, the diagnostic evaluation of patients, operative procedures and clinics. It is anticipated that students will develop skills in the evaluation of imaging studies and gain an introduction to the various diagnostic techniques, including endoscopy, sonography, CT scans and MRI.

The common goals of each of the rotations listed below are as follows: Students will be integrated as fully participating members of the Urology team at the institution to which they rotate. Students will participate in clinical rounds, operative procedure, patient evaluations, clinics and post-operative care, and will be expected to attend all departmental-wide teaching and clinical conferences and rounds, as well as those conferences specific to their particular institution. During their rotation, the students are encouraged to correlate clinical with pathologic findings. At the conclusion of the rotation it is anticipated that students will have developed an understanding of the various domains of Urology and to become familiar with at least the initial stages of a Urologic evaluation.

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Contact Info

Office of Medical Education
40 Biomedical Education Building
3435 Main Street
Buffalo, New York 14214

P: (716) 829-2802
F: (716) 829-2798


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