Pinder, Ullrich (German, practicing from 1493; died 1510 or 1519)

Urine Wheel, from Epiphanie Medicorum

Reference Type:
One of the primary means for diagnosing illness early in the history of medicine was urine analysis, during which physicians would observe, smell, and even taste their patients’ urine. Urine wheels, such as this example by German physician Ullrich Pindar, assisted them in the interpretation of their results. For example, it was known that what a person ate could affect the color of their urine, that infection caused cloudiness and a bad smell, and that high volume and a sweet flavor could indicate diabetes. Urinalysis is still an important diagnostic tool in medicine today, although some of the analysis methods fortunately have changed! Not a great deal is known about Ullrich Pindar, who was practicing medicine in Nuremberg, Germany, by 1493. In addition to the section on urine analysis, his Epiphanie Medicorum contained information about pulses and fevers. Notes by Mariann Smith
History of Medicine
The Royal Library, Copenhagen